Why Acroyoga? – A yogic perspective

Without willing to enter deeply into its definition, Acroyoga is known as the practice that combines Acrobatics and Yoga. But the object of this article is to assess the following questions: Does it actually make sense? Can we call it Yoga?

On one side, partner acrobatics is the practice of using the body of two or more people to create static or dynamic figures with the end objective of creating beauty in highlighting balance and strength. Before any contact with Yoga, this sport has seen people lifted by the hips, balancing on feet, or standing upside down from the hands and legs. The practice of this sport requires athletic people featuring strength, flexibility and particularly, a great deal of balance.

On the other hand, the physical practice of Yoga traditionally only aims at preparing the body for meditation, but it’s agreed that it enhances mostly those same qualities that partner acrobatics require. Strength helps maintaining a healthy body, while flexibility and balance come in handy when time comes to sit for hours with an empty mind.

Eventually, a yogic lifestile could be considered in which the asana practice (the practice of yoga poses) is substituted with a well-rounded designed partner acrobatic practice that yields the same consequences and benefits to the practitioner’s body in terms of stretch, muscle work-out, alignment and balance. The development of these new asanas can and should be inspired by the traditional yoga poses, and in some cases can even open new doors to discovery, such as in the case of the inverted dhanurasana or bow, habilitated only by skillful bases and which enables the standard bow to be practiced with the gravity set to work in the opposite direction. This is what can be called Acroyoga.

Sometimes creativity will be necessary to reach out to all body movements that Hatha or Ashtanga poses trigger in the human body, and perhaps even the practice of those asanas separatedly from the acrobatic Yoga practice will be still recommended for beginners in Acroyoga. Also, the practice of Acroyoga should start off with a warm-up asana sequence designed to wake-up and stretch the muscles and ligaments that will be most solicitated during the acrobatic practice.

This new set of acrobatic poses (asanas) could potentially cover everything that the traditional asana sequences feature, and on top of that, they will offer some extra particularities, namely and mainly the fact that a partner is needed for the practice, and the need to develop trust and confidence in the said practice partner. These two aspects are not found anywhere else in the traditional yoga practice, thus it’s the right moment to ask: Are these in line with the rest of the yogic philosophy? and, if so, what do they add to it?

There are four traditional paths of Yoga that one can take to achieve the same end goal. From these four, the path of Raja Yoga, the Yoga of willpower and the unification of mind and body, is the one that has widespreaded in the west. The Raja Yoga has eight limbs that guide the practitioner in its path, and one of these is the practice of the well known Yoga poses. Also, one of the eight limbs of Raja Yoga, the Yamas or “duties”, is mostly related to a socially healthy behaviour with regards to other people and society in general. The Yamas ask us to be non-violent and non-injurious, to be truthful, to be disciplined in love, to not foster jealousy and covetedness, and to stay moral in front of gifts and bribes. These Yamas are sort of a detailed breakdown from the maximum rule of love and compassion. Love for other human beings and compassion for humankind. It is indeed a valuable aspect of Yoga and one that western societies need to work on, in the days of individuality and egocentrism. The article’s author even dares to wonder: Isn’t the highly individual and self-centered practice of Yoga poses what made it become so popular in the west?

By practicing Yoga in partnership, Yogis (people who practice Yoga) are faced with sharing the needs of the practice with other human beings. A practitioner will want to work in his or her physical body, stretching, movilizing, strenthening, ultimately preparing for meditation, but at the same time will need to share the working tempo with the partner who is aiming for the same. They both will have to grow trust in each other’s intentions and capabilities, and widen the range of observation, usually confined within our own body, to inlcude an awareness for the body of the partner, aiming at the ideal state of feeling both bodies as one. In the same way, practitioners will also have to give or dedicate part of their practice selflessly to the partner, while at another time of the practice they will learn to receive the specific benefits of the practice together.

At a higher level, the learning Acroyoga enables the Yogi to share his or her experience with any other partner around the world. As a by-product, a worldwide community is established, within which, regardless of their nationality, religion, or belief system, two persons will be able to immediately establish a bond of trust and love while benefitting from a healthy Yoga asana practice.

Without scientific proof available, it is easy to imagine how this nature of Acroyoga may develop a higher sense of harmony within our societies, enhancing love and compassion not only within our known and comfortable circles, but expanding it towards unexplored circles all around the globe.

Finally, one more aspect worth discussing is the intrinsic fun that Acroyoga provides, which makes it so attractive for many people, and that draws them into the Acrobatics first, the practice Yoga asanas afterwards, and ultimately to the yogic philosophy.

As a conclusion, Acroyoga can legitimately be included within the definition of Yoga, conceiving its figures as a supplement to the practice of Yoga poses and which carry further advantages and the development of further qualities beyond the physical well-being, in-line with the ancient Yoga philosophy. Nevertheless, a well-rounded practice can not be achieved by confining it into one single Yoga school, for which complementary physical practice of other Yoga styles will only add-up to good. Yin Yoga a candidate for perfect combination match with Acroyoga, but the reasons why and a detailed relation of benefits from one another would be a subject of a whole new article in itself.


Lesvos, day 3

This is a translation of the post from February 1st, 2016


On the first walk around Mytilini you can already see the drama. The beaches are sprinkled with life vests, rubber boat parts, wet jackets and bags full of sand, and shoes. The man who brings the food to Pikpa was telling me this morning that the arrival of refugees became already a part of the island. In days like today, where the wind blows from the south giving the sea a treacherous calm aspect, his thought and the thoughts of his neighbours is not only with the fishers, who will not leave harbor today, but also with the refugees, who oculd get trapped by the merciless winds during the sea crossing.

He explained me that in our way to Pikpa with his van, as he picked me up from the road. Pikpa is a small sanctuary for refugees in high vulnerability situation. This includes families with only one parent left, injured people, elderly, discapacitated, etc. When these people arrive at the registration, if they comply with a series of conditions, they are offered to rest and recover in Pikpa for a while, before continuing their journey.

In Pikpa I did rooms, cultivated the garden, sorted rubber boat parts for reuse, and entretained little kids. Masut, an afghan boy that speaks no single word which is not in Farsi, decided to accompany me in most of these tasks. For him, I even drank a super-sweet coffee that he brought to me as I arrived at the camp this morning (note: I don’t drink coffee!). Also I hope the clothes I brought suit some refugees in this camp.


Some tents and houses in Pikpa. I took this picture with care not to catch any resident or kid in it.

Little more there is to explain, as I’ve been here only three days. If there’s enough volunteers in Pikpa to cover all jobs, I will try to visit and collaborate with other projects around the island where they might need more help, and also to get a broader picture of the situation. So far I’ll keep for myself some of the things I have seen so far, or opinions about the challenges to work with refugees and with volunteers, waiting for them to evolve further with the experiences to come.


It's fair to also share a picure of the beautiful harbour of Mytilini on sunset

Chronicle of a boat landing

This is a translation of the post from February 11th, 2016



It is so surreal…

The coast of Turkey seems to be really near from Skala Skamineas, perhaps due to the effect of the mountains by the sea on the other side. One would say you could cross swimming. But then you see a tiny orange point in the middle of the sea. So small, so far, but still so close, since they seem to be already past half of the way. You take the zoom of the camera and confirm it: It’s a rubber boat, crowded with people on orange “life-vests” (you know, these vests that in contact with water get heavier and heavier…).

Everyone kicks in. In the island, the volunteers are now more than prepared. Multiple life guards are coordinated to go find them and accompany them in the last bit of the crossing. People in the camps load their cars with dry clothes, socks and shoes, but also blankets. The doctors grab their cases. The crossing over the sea is long, cold and wet, and many arrive shivering. Those who stopped shivering are the worse. Removing their wet clothes and wrapping them with dry blankets is crucial.


They are fortunate now, within the disfortune. At the beach there’s many of us waiting for them, as this is what we came to do. The boat reaches the beach and they jump down. We try to keep them calm but it’s not easy. We lift the children and carry them away from the water to avoid their feet from getting wet, though often in vain, as the boat comes already full of water. Still keep an eye not to split families! If they get lost now, it will be difficult to meet again. Translators do the easiest but most vital work.


And they are here. They walk on the beach. One or two bags contain absolutely everything they possess in life now. They have no ceiling, no home, no country, as they left their behind pushed by the fire. Doctors take care of some people in shock, mainly due to the cold. The feeling in my body is very weird. Despite the thoughts about the terror these very same people just fled, I keep smiling at them and ask them how are they doing. Vans and cars of volunteers bring them to the nearest camps (this time to the IRC camp at the coast towards Molyvos).


Many are happy. They smile. Said comes from Damascus. He thanks us many times and wishes that God bless us. Hardly we have asked, he already explains. He paid 650€ for the crossing. The smuggler stayed in Turkey and a refugee himself drove the boat. The driver crosses for free. They waited a whole day in the coast of Turkey for the right moment to leave avoiding the Turkish coast guard. They knew they would cross because their smuggler bribed the turkish military (this is for me difficult to believe, as if the turkish coast guard intercepts them and brings them back, as it happened to two boats today, they will never see their money again anyway). Said also indicates that another boat should be coming, from the same smuggler.

And indeed, we sight the orange spot in the horizon.


Refugees in the Island of Lesvos

This is a translation of the post from January 28th, 2016


This ferry will bring us to the island of Lesvos. Lesvos is the third biggest island in Greece and the seventh in the Mediterranean. About 86.000 people live on the island, which belongs to Greece since 1912, and thus to the European Union since 1981. At only between 6 and 10 kilometers of salty water and waves there’s the coast of Turkey.

The island, usually a touristic destination, is now famous due to the massive arrival of migrant refugees mainly from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Half of all refugees who arrived in Europe in 2015, arrived through this island. That’s around 500.000 people. The figure is so big it’s hard to assimilate. In December 2015 about 3.300 people was arriving every day. In 2016 up until today, around 40.000 more people landed here.

On the island, many NGO’s but also volunteers from the island itself and from all around the world organize themselves in working groups in order to assist the refugees, which after the odyssey at the sea still have to reach the registration points, and plan the continuation of their journeys. The volunteers watch the beaches to ensure safe arrivals, provide dry clothes to the cold and wet arriving refugees, or cook warm meals for the days of waiting in the registration camps or the port.

But, why do the refugees cross the sea in such dangerous conditions? What are they fleeing of exactly? What do they expect to find in Europe or what did they hear? Can they help us understand the conflict they are fleeing of? What can we do from Europe to help them? Can the international implication really help Syria? Or will it only keep making it worse? If so, how? How many people will arrive still?


Today (28.01.2016) I landed here. Μυτιλήνη. Mytilini for the friends. At the beginning of an experience during which I hope to grow while learning about one of the main crisis in the world today, and working to easy the symptoms on the innocent population, aporting my tiny bit of help.

Un llibre publicat a Londres el 1714: “The Deplorable History of the Catalans”

The Deplorable History of the Catalans - Portada

La deplorable història dels Catalans,

Des de la seva primera activitat en la guerra, fins al temps de la seva reducció.

Amb les
Causes, Declaracions, i compromisos amb els quals van prendre les armes en primer lloc.

Les cartes, tractats, i d’altres relacionats. Les raons per les quals van seguir a les armes contra el rei Felip; i les reconvencions usades per l’Emperador i la Gran Bretanya en el seu favor.

Amb el relat del que va passar durant el final del setge a Barcelona, i els seus compromisos personals de romandre units.


Podeu veure el llibre sencer en aquest enllaç en PDF (triga a carregar), o en aquest altre, pàgina per pàgina.


Far far away

Versió personalitzada de la cançó Far far away de Slade:
Podeu escoltar l’original aqui. Espero que us agradi 🙂

I’ve seen the skyline of Toronto from the Great Lakes
I’ve walked all my way down the path to Finisterre
I’ve seen the Milky Way drawn up above the darkest ever steppes,
it still seems so unreal

I’ve seen the nightless sky of Norway in the summer
I’ve seen the sunset in the dunes of Rajasthan
I’ve drank the night out in Chiang Mai, in Lisbon and in Istambul,
and Yekaterinburg

And I’m far, far away with my head up in the clouds
And I’m far, far away with my feet down in the crowds
Lettin’ loose around the world but the call of home is loud
still is loud

I’ve laughed together with people from thousand nations
I’ve played with monkeys, cats, and fish from everywhere
Driving around in dirty bikes letting the wind decide my ride,
in grateful companies,

And I’m far, far away for the hopes of better hypes
And I’m far, far away living the adventure of life
Escape the booze of your routine, but you can’t ignore that home’s
calling loud

I climbed the fairy chimneys in the core of Turkey
The crazy sounds of Amazonia echo on
And all those smiling sawadees stay in your memory for a while,
There still seems more to come

And I’m far, far away for the hopes of better hypes
And I’m far, far away living the adventure of life
Escape the booze of your routine, but you can’t ignore that home’s
calling loud

And I’m far, far away with my head up in the clouds
And I’m far, far away with my feet down in the crowds
Lettin’ loose around the world but the sound of home is loud
still as loud

Camino de Santiago 2009 T2 (152)



Party in Ayutthaya


I si heu baixat la pàgina fins aquí, teniu de regal un bonus track! Aquesta és una versió molt personal de la cançó Wrecking Ball de Miley Cyrus. El to utilitzat per la cançó m’ha vingut perfecte per descriure les emocions de la meva vida en aquest moment.
Podeu sentir la cançó original aqui. A gaudir-la!

With that start nothing should have gone
so wrong, happiness was served
We kissed, we run, we hid, we felt
so strong overwhelming us

We took our way, there was much to learn,
even from ourselves
Joining our hands, paths were soon revealed
blended under the stars

I curse the huge mistake I did,
forced and blind I hit the tragedy,
life and hope was wrecked apart by me,
and what I most regret is how she got hurt
it all was because of me

I wandered on the streets alone
without a place to call home
So many things became so clear
but now, you can’t trust in me

We took our way, there was much to learn,
even from ourselves,
Joining our hands, paths could be revealed
moonlight guiding our steps

I curse the huge mistake I did,
forced and blind I hit the tragedy,
life and hope was wrecked apart by me,
and what I most regret is how she got hurt

I curse the huge mistake I did,
now it’s late to fix the pain I caused,
abandoned she gave the war for lost,
and what I most regret is how she got hurt
it all was because of me

I’m not allowed to lose the hope,
I can feel there’s still a spark within,
you know we have seen the glow,
back in Holland and in Bangkok.
I’m not allowed to lose the hope,
I am sure there’s still a spark within,
and you know that we have seen the glow

Paths under the stars, could come clear again,
if we joined our hands

I curse the huge mistake I did,
forced and blind I hit the tragedy,
life and hope was wrecked apart by me,
and what I most regret is how she got hurt

I curse the huge mistake I did,
now it’s late to fix the pain I caused,
abandoned she gave the war for lost,
and what I most regret is how she got hurt
it all was because of me
it all was because of me


Mentida nº10 sobre Catalunya – Mentira nº10 sobre Cataluña – Falsehood nº10 about Catalonia

This article is written in Catalan, Spanish and English. Please scroll down to find your preferred reading language.

Este artículo está escrito en Catalán, Español e Inglés. Bajad por el texto para encontrar su lengua de lectura preferida.

Aquest article està escrit en Català, Castellà i Anglès. Baixeu pel text fins a trobar la vostra llengua de lectura preferida.

<– A la mentida n°9   –   A la mentira n°9   –   To falsehood n°9


Recordo que la publicació original d’aquest article correspon a la revista Sàpiens.

Mentida n°9: Franco va ser clau en la industrialització de Catalunya

La industrialització de Catalunya no és un fenomen recent ni deu res a l’acció d’un dictador. Seria més just dir que la indústria catalana va sobreviure malgrat un dictador que va fer tot el possible per afeblir el país, però que va haver d’empassar-se les seves fòbies quan es va fer evident que si Catalunya s’empobria, l’empobriment de tot Espanya esdevindria imparable.

L’emprenedoria no es fa en 40 anys
El procés d’industrialització català va iniciar-se en el segle XVIII amb el sector cotoner i les fàbriques d’indianes, afavorits per l’existència d’un esperit empresarial emprenedor, la proximitat geogràfica a l’Europa que proporcionava la tecnologia i la inversió d’una part dels beneficis generats per la modernització de l’agricultura del Principat. Aquest nucli inicial es va eixamplar al llarg del segle XIX, malgrat guerres, revoltes i crisis, i amb retard respecte de l’Europa occidental. La revolució dels transports, amb l’establiment d’una xarxa de ferrocarrils, i la substitució del vapor per l’energia hidràulica, factors que van escampar la mecanització arreu del país, van inaugurar una etapa de prosperitat, tot i que el pensament lliurecanvista i anti-industrialista dels governs centrals va fer més nosa que servei a unes activitats que requerien lleis proteccionistes. Bona part d’això es va malmetre amb la guerra civil.

L’autarquia franquista
El franquisme va instaurar l’autarquia, una economia rígida de racionament, sense intercanvis amb l’exterior, en què l’Estat havia de produir tots els béns necessaris. Fins a la fi de la Segona Guerra Mundial es va fer evident la voluntat de les autoritats de dificultar la recuperació econòmica de Catalunya. Es van traslladar a Madrid les seus socials d’empreses catalanes; es va depurar el personal dels organismes encarregats de l’economia del país; es va crear l’Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), orientat a construir indústries allà on no pogués arribar la iniciativa privada i que va representar una discriminació envers el Principat; i els bancs espanyols van absorbir les entitats del país amb prou agressivitat perquè a mitjan dècada dels cinquanta la banca catalana només representés el 3% del sistema bancari espanyol.

Tanmateix, l’aïllament que va patir la dictadura espanyola després de la derrota del nazisme va dur la seva economia a l’estancament. Hi mancaven energia i matèries primeres, les restriccions elèctriques eren constants. La burgesia industrial i comercial catalana, que havia renunciat a exercir un paper polític i que donava suport al règim perquè era garant d’una pau social que permetia obtenir guanys, es limitava a fer funcionar els seus negocis a pesar de l’intervencionisme estatal, intervencionisme que no sempre se sortia amb la seva.

Franco accedeix als desitjos de FIAT
La dictadura, que hauria volgut que Catalunya s’especialitzés en la indústria tèxtil, va haver de transigir amb el desig de l’empresa automobilística italiana FIAT d’instal·lar la factoria SEAT a Barcelona pel seu port i la seva mà d’obra qualificada, desig que va contrariar el general Franco, que havia ofert altres ubicacions, i va incrementar el pes del sector del metall al Principat.

El model autàrquic, incapaç de millorar el nivell de vida de la població, va entrar en crisi i va haver d’evolucionar cap a la liberalització del sistema econòmic amb el Pla d’Estabilització del 1959, aprovat a desgrat del dictador, que tenia en l’autarquia un símbol de la seva victòria en la guerra. Començava el redreçament econòmic.

“La petita obrera”, quadre de 1885. – “La pequeña obrera”, cuadro de 1885. – “The little worker”, painting of 1885.

Recuerdo que la publicación original de este artículo corresponde a la revista Sàpiens.

Mentira n°10: Franco fue clave en la industrialización de Cataluña

La industrialización de Cataluña no es un fenómeno reciente ni debe nada a la acción de un dictador. Sería mas justo decir que la indústria catalana sobrevivió a pesar de un dictador que hizo todo lo posible para debilitar el país, pero que tuvo que tragarse sus fóbias cuando se hizo evidente que si Cataluña se empobrecía, el empobrecimiento de toda España sería imparable.

La emprendeduría no se hace en 40 años
El proceso de industrialización catalán se inició en el siglo XVIII con el sector del algodón y las fábricas de indianas, favorecidos por la existencia de un espíritu empresarial y emprendedor, la proximidad geográfica a Europa que proporcionaba la tecnología y la inversión de una parte de los beneficios generados para la modernización de la agricultura del Principado. Este núcleo inicial se ensanchó a lo largo del siglo XIX, a pesar de las guerras, revueltas, y crisis, y con retraso respeto a la Europa occidental. La revolución de los transportes, con el establecimiento de una red de ferrocarriles, y la sustitución del vapor por energía hidráulica, factores que esparcieron la mecanización por todo el país, inauguraron una etapa de prosperidad, aunque el pensamiento librecambista y anti-industrialista de los gobiernos centrales entorpeció mas que ayudó a unas actividades que requerían leyes proteccionistas. Buena parte de esto se dañó con la guerra civil.

La autarquía franquista
El franquismo instauró la autarquía, una economía rígida de racionamiento, sin intercambios con el exterior, en que el Estado tenía que producir todos los bienes necesarios. Hasta el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial se hizo evidente la voluntad de las autoridades de dificultar la recuperación económica de Cataluña. Se trasladaron a Madrid las sedes sociales de empresas catalanas; se depuró el personal de los organismos encargados de la economía del país; se creó el Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), orientado a construir industrias allí donde la iniciativa privada no pudiera llegar, y que representó una discriminación con respecto al Principado; y los bancos españoles absorbieron las entidades de Cataluña con suficiente agresividad como para que a mediados de la década de los cincuenta la banca catalana solo representara el 3% del sistema bancario español.

Sin embargo, el aislamiento que sufrió la dictadura española después de la derrota del nazismo llevó su economía al estancamiento. Faltaban energía y materias primas, y las restricciones eléctricas eran constantes. La burguesía industrial y comercial catalana, que había renunciado a ejercer un papel político y que apoyaba el régimen porque era garante de una paz social que permitía obtener ganancias, se limitaba a hacer funcionar sus negocios a pesar del intervencionismo estatal, intervencionismo que no siempre se salía con la suya.

Franco accede a los deseos de FIAT
La dictadura,  que habría querido que Cataluña se especializara en la industria textil, tuvo que transigir con el deseo de la empresa automovilística italiana FIAT de instalar la factoría SEAT en Barcelona por su puerto y su mano de obra cualificada, deseo que contrarió el general Franco, que había ofrecido otras ubicaciones, e incrementó el peso del sector del metal en el Principado.

El modelo autárquico, incapaz de mejorar el nivel de vida de la población, entró en crisis y tuvo que evolucionar hacia la liberalización del sistema económico con el Plan de Estabilización de 1959, aprobado a desgrado del dictador, que tenía en la autarquía un símbolo de su victoria en la guerra. Empezaba el enderezamiento económico.

Colònia industrial Sedó, a Esparraguera, fundada el 1846. – Colonia industrial Sedó, en Esparraguera, fundada en 1846. – Sedó Industrial Colony, in Esparraguera, founded in 1846.


Falsehood n°10: Franco was key in the industralization of Catalonia

The industrialization of Catalonia is not a recent phenomenon and neither owes anything to a dictators action. It would be more fair to say that the catalan industry survived despite a dictator that did all in his hands to weaken the country, but who had to swallow his phobias when it became evident that if Catalonia became poorer, all Spain would become poorer unstoppably.

Entrepreneurship is not built in 40 years
The catalan industrialization process started back in the 18th century with the cotton sector and the colico factories (textile tissues), favored by the existence of an enterprise and entrepreneur spirit, the geographic proximity to Europe providing the technology, and the investment of a portion of the generated benefits to the modernization of the agriculture in the Principality. This initial nucleus widened through the 19th century, despite the wars, revolts and crisis, and with delay with regards to the occidental Europe. The transports revolution, with the establishment of a railway network, and the substitution of the vapor power by hydraulic energy, leading to the spread mechanization throughout the country, launched an era of prosperity, although the free trade and anti-industrialist mentalities of the central governments bothered more than helped the activities of a sector which required rather protectionist laws. Great part of this was damaged during the civil war.

Franco’s autarchy
Franco’s regime established autarchy, a rigid rationing economic system, without exchanges with the exterior, in which the State had to produce all the necessary goods. Until the end of the WWII was evident the will of the authorities to hinder the economic recovery of Catalonia. The social headquarters of catalan enterprises were moved to Madrid; the personnel of the agencies in charge of the economy of Catalonia was purged; the National Industry Institute was founded, oriented to build industries where private initiative could not reach and which represented a discrimination against Catalonia; and the spanish banks absorbed the catalan entities aggressively enough so that in the mid-decade of the fifties, catalan banking represented only 3% of the spanish banking system.

Nevertheless, the isolation suffered by the spanish dictatorship after the defeat of Nazism brought its economy to stagnation. Energy and raw materials were lacking, and electrical restrictions were constant. The industrial and commercial catalan bourgeoisie, who resigned from playing a political role and who was giving support to the regime as it was a guardian of the social peace allowing them to obtain gains, limited itself to make the business work despite the State interventionism; interventionism that not always got away with it.

Franco resigns to FIAT wishes
The dictatorship, which would have liked Catalonia to specialize in the textile industry, had to accept the wishes of the automobile Italian enterprise, FIAT, to install the factory of SEAT in Barcelona, for its port and its qualified manpower. That wishes thwarted general Franco, who had offered other locations, and increased the relevance of the metal sector in the Principality.

The autarchist model, unable to improve the population’s level of life, entered in crisis and had to evolve towards the liberalization of the economic system with the Stabilization Plan of 1959, approved reluctantly by the dictator, who had in the Autarchy a symbol of his victory in the war. The economic recovery had started.